Design and Fabrication of a Special Purpose Hydraulic Press
Hydraulics has proven to be the most efficient and economical system adaptable to aviation. First used by the ancient Greeks as a means of elevating the stages of their amphitheaters, the principles of hydraulics were explained scientifically by the seventeenth century scholars Pascal and Boyle. The laws discovered by these two men regarding the effects of pressure and temperature on fluids and gases in confined areas form the basis of the principle of mechanical advantage; in other words, the "why and how" of hydraulics. The word "hydraulic" is derived from two Greek words: "hydro" meaning liquid or water and "aulos" meaning pipe or tubing. "Hydraulic," therefore, is an adjective implying that the word it modifies is in some major way concerned with liquids. Examples can be found in the everyday usage of "hydraulic" in connection with familiar items such as automobile jacks and brakes. As a further example, the phrase "hydraulic freight elevator" refers to an elevator ascending and descending on a column of liquid instead of using cables and a drum. On the other hand, the word "hydraulics" is the generic name of a subject. According to the dictionary "hydraulics" is defined as a branch of science that deals with practical applications (such as the transmission of energy or the effects of flow) of a liquid in motion.