Power Grid Failure Detection Based on Voltage and Frequency Variance Detection
The project aims at developing a system capable of identifying abnormalities in voltage or frequency in order to detect a synchronization failure of a power source. Real life power grids consist of Hydro, thermal, solar etc power sources connected in synchronization to power the plant. These sources are supposed to supply power in accordance to grid rules. These rules include voltage and frequency variations within certain limits. A deviation off these limits must lead to that data source being disconnected from the grid with immediate effect. This is known as islanding. This is used to avoid a huge brown out or black out through the power grid. Our system is designed to warn the grid in advance of a power failure so that the grid may use other backup data sources when needed so as to avoid total power failure. Our system demonstrates this using a microcontroller of the 8051 family. The MC is used to detect the voltage and frequency from a set of comparators. Since the frequency cannot be varied, a frequency generator (555 timer) is used for this purpose. A standard variac is also used with it in order to vary the input voltage to the system. A normal load/lamp is used to demonstrate a predicted black out or power failure in case of out of limit voltage/frequency variance.